Google Competitors and Alternatives Analysis

Google is a technology company that organizes and makes all of the world’s information available.

Google is one of the most innovative companies in the modern era, founded in 1998 by Sergey Brin and headquartered in Mountain View, California.

Google is one of the biggest companies in the world, such as Amazon, Facebook, and Apple. This website has over one billion users and services under each category. 

Google is a leader in providing users with internet-related products and services, such as search engines, chrome, online ads, YouTube, Google Maps, and google store software and hardware.

Google Competitors and Alternatives Analysis

The company Google was divided into two parts Google, Inc. Google’s parent company, Alphabet, Inc. In 2010, Google was divided into two, but each company has different products and business models.

Alphabet, Inc. and Google, Inc. claim that their business has accelerated in search engine advertising, science, entertainment, and autonomous cars. Google’s cross-cutting products and services mean that its competitors are varied.

Google products are used by over a billion people worldwide, whether it is search engines, cloud computing, smartphones, or advertisements. 

The fact that Google is the only company in that category is not enough because certain competitors offer better products and services. 

Google has over a billion users of its products and service worldwide, but that doesn’t mean it is the only company in the market; it has competing companies in each of its business segments.

Google has a market capitalization of nearly $1.54 trillion as of 2022, which makes it the fourth most valuable company in the world, behind Apple, Microsoft, and Amazon.

Google Competitors and Alternatives    

Google provides many services beyond internet searches, such as cloud computing, video sharing, digital ads, streaming services, smartphones, artificial intelligence, and self-driving cars. It has been over a decade since Google has dominated online advertising.

Google constantly faces competition from technology giants such as Microsoft, Facebook, Amazon, and Apple.

Google must compete with upcoming competitors who provide alternatives to its products and services, like TikTok.

Here is a look at some of Google’s biggest competitors and their alternatives.

Google Competitors in Search Engine

It is no secret that Google is the most popular search engine in the world. Google Search generated $104 billion in ad revenue in 2020, over 71% of Google’s total revenue.

It is estimated that Google will control almost all online search data by 2022, with 87.75% of the global search engine market.

Most of Google’s revenue comes from advertising, making it extremely difficult to outsmart and outperform it.

Bing, Microsoft’s search engine, is the second largest search engine, ahead of Yahoo! With 5.66% of the market share, Bing is the main competitor to Google.

Google commands 87,75% of the search engine market in the US, followed by Bing and Yahoo! Likewise, MSN holds 2.71% of the market. 

The internet pioneer and media company AOL is considered a competitor of Google.

Some countries, including China, prohibit Google from doing business. More than 80% of Chinese searches are performed on Baidu, the country’s largest search engine.

Bing

It is difficult for companies to compete with Google in the search engine space. Google commands over 90% of the search engine market, making it the only big player in the world. 

Microsoft’s Bing is the closest thing businesses have to Google when competing with it in search engines.

Bing is owned by Microsoft and used for most searches on the web. In terms of search engine popularity, Bing ranks second after Google. Google and Bing are the second most popular search engines. 

It ranks higher than Google in search results, which is good because Bing is a reliable search engine. 

In 2020, Bing generated $7.74 billion in search advertising revenues, less than half of Google’s search engine revenue of $100 billion.

Bing is a more refined version of Microsoft’s MSN search engine. The two companies were Bing and MSN in 2009 and Microsoft in 2010. 

Bing originated as MSN Search but eventually moved to Windows Live Search and is now renamed Bing Search.

Bing’s users come from the original MSN search engine, but their strong marketing and product partnerships have helped Bing gain an advantage over its competitors. 

Bing and Yahoo recently teamed up to power Yahoo’s search engine. It will help Yahoo in running its search services.

Google prefers to show periodically updated and fresh content, while Bing focuses on showing older and reputable sites. Search engines are monopolistic, but having competition is better than having nothing.

Bing has a significant lead in the US and controls 36,96% of the market. Google controls more than 85,76% of the global search market, but Bing controls only 5.56%. 

Bing changed from Yelp to Facebook reviews in February 2021 to increase its market share.

Bing can give businesses a competitive advantage over Google because it integrates with Microsoft solutions. Google provides users with search query results, making it Bing’s biggest competition.

DuckDuckGo

DuckDuckGo is a search engine that aims to protect the privacy of searchers by giving them the best search results. DuckDuckGo is a search engine designed to ensure users that all search information they enter will be private. 

DuckDuckGo was introduced in 2008, a year before MSN was rebranded to Bing. I consider this to be the anti-google of search engines.

It protects searchers’ privacy. It has also helped the company grow its user base to become quite large.

Google Competitors and Alternatives Analysis

DuckDuckGo does not show search results tied to specific keywords or display search results from content farms.

DuckDuckGo employs 78 employees and generates around $25 million in revenue annually. 

DuckDuckGo guarantees its users anonymity online, which makes it very attractive for consumers. DuckDuckGo’s mobile app was downloaded 50 million times last year.

It’s more than all the mobile apps we’ve downloaded in the past thirteen years. All the combined apps downloaded within the last thirteen years are less than this number.

DuckDuckGo began off being used by a few thousand people every day. It has grown steadily to have 38 million searches per day in 2018. 

DuckDuckGo controlled a small portion of the global search engine market in 2019, and the share will grow to 0.3%. The achievement came within a decade of its launch. It is not an uncanny record that it has established. 

DuckDuckGo ranks fourth among search engines in the United States, behind Google, Bing, and Yahoo! 

DuckDuckGo has become the third most popular search engine in the US. The company currently controls 1.29% of the US search engine market. DuckDuckGo is the best alternative to Google for privacy-conscious customers.

Yahoo!

Search engine Yahoo is regarded as one of the pioneers of the internet. Verizon acquired Yahoo for $4.48 billion in 2017. Yahoo provides search engine capabilities and email and instant messaging services. 

Yahoo services offer a search engine, a business directory, and mail and instant messaging services. Yahoo employs around 8,600 workers and will generate nearly $5.17 billion in revenue by 2020.

Launched in the early 1990s, Yahoo has since become one of the largest online services. It is one of the most popular search engines in the world. 

Yahoo partnered with Google in the early 2000s to get more searches and ad opportunities. Their marriage ended in 2004. 

Yahoo and Google were partners before 2004. The possibility of Yahoo performing its searches became evident after that point.

Yahoo is the third most popular search engine in the world. Yahoo had a market share of 2.71% in 2021.

 It was behind Google with 87.76% and Bing with 5.56%. In 2019, Yahoo controlled just 1.66% of the search market, compared to Google’s 92%.

Yahoo has taken 1% of the search market in less than 2 years, while Google has lost 4%. 

Yahoo is one of the most experienced competitors to Google. It even has a subdomain of Yahoo! Yahoo canceled a deal with Microsoft in 2010 but did not take off very well.

Yahoo had just one search engine that offered all the websites in chronological order, but now it presents all the websites in a way that gives users more choices and is easy to use. 

Google responded with a complete display of relevant information based on the user’s search requirements.

Baidu

Baidu is a Chinese search engine company that provides people with internet-related products and services. It offers various internet-related services such as search engines, games, maps, and other products. 

Baidu invested in AVs, driverless taxi apps, and first-generation Kunlun chips, valued at $2 billion. Baidu employs 37,779 individuals and generates revenue of $15,4 billion in the fiscal year 2020.

Baidu was founded by Robin Li and Eric Xu in 2000. Baidu is the most popular search engine worldwide and has a market share of 2.03%. 

Baidu is similar to a Chinese version of Google. It offers similar products to its users, such as search engines, services, and information.

Baidu ranks fourth worldwide for searches, behind Google, Bing, and Yahoo. You are most likely going to choose Baidu, I think. One search engine in China with 75% of the search market, ahead of Google. 

Like Google’s self-driving cars, Baidu’s robocars operate autonomously. Baidu is its biggest competitor in China to Google.

The Chinese search engine offers users similar services, such as music, games, local information, maps, and searches.

Baidu is a Chinese company that focuses exclusively on the Chinese market and operates under Chinese censorship laws. The company is growing its market share in other countries.

Yandex

Yandex is a Russian search engine launched in 2010 to help local users with relevant search results in other languages. 

Yandex controls more than 57% of the market in Russia, but it is also highly used in several other countries such as Turkey, Kazakhstan, and Belarus.

Yandex is a multinational technology company that provides search engines for users across the globe.

Yandex is a Russian search engine that provides results in Russian, English, and other languages. It develops intelligent products and services powered by machine learning. 

Yandex has earned over $3.02 billion in revenue and $173 million in profit in 2020, with more than 10,227 employees.

Yandex provides customers various services, including transportation, e-commerce, mobile applications, and search and information.

In August 2021, Yandex bought Uber and its businesses in food technology, delivery, and self-driving cars. Each company paid $1 billion.

Yandex dominates more than 48% of the Russian search engine market and ranks first compared to Google. 

Yandex is the second largest search engine in Russia, after Google. Yandex ranks fifth globally. Yandex is the biggest rival of Google in Russia.

Yandex and Google differ in that the search results for users are based on their location, which means that their results can vary from country to country.

Yandex provides useful location-based searches to local businesses and international brands throughout many cities and regions. A Yandex search engine is much more complicated than a Google search engine.

Google Competitors in Entertainment

Google acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in 2006 and has since built an impressive online entertainment and video content platform. 

YouTube generated $21.96 billion in advertising revenue in the year it was acquired. That was a 30% increase from the previous year. It was a huge jump of 30 percent, meaning that the acquisition was well worth it.

YouTube is losing to competitors such as Netflix, Hulu, Vimeo, and other streaming platforms. 

YouTube has its rivals, but it competes with other social media platforms, including Meta (formerly Facebook), Instagram, and Twitter.

TikTok

TikTok was launched in 2017 and gained more than 700 million users within one year. TikTok is a unique product that appeals to many young and older people, especially teenagers.

TikTok is a popular social media and video-sharing platform. TikTok is a subsidiary of the Chinese entertainment company ByteDance. 

TikTok has the highest number of active users and is the fastest-growing social network worldwide as of 2022. ByteDance’s number of users is growing, and its profit has grown 111% to $34.3 billion.

TikTok became the most downloaded app on Apple’s App Store with 45,8 million downloads and more than 660M downloads across iOS and Android by the end of 2018. 

TikTok is the most popular social network globally, especially among millennials. While Google has not officially declared TikTok as a major competitor of YouTube, TikTok will likely cause some major issues for YouTube soon.

TikTok is the top competitor to YouTube. It attracts the youngest and most stylish people. The fierce rivalry between YouTube and TikTok caused people to split into two camps. 

The YouTubers vs. TikTokers Fight was held on June 12, 2021, and the winners were YouTubers. 

The best content creators from both platforms competed in a match on YouTubers. The YouTube creators won six of seven matches. 

TikTok has more than 1 billion users in 150 countries. TikTok is popular with both GenZers and Millennials, which makes it a top YouTube competitor.

Instagram

Instagram is a social media platform that allows users to share photos and videos. The platform is owned by Meta(formerly Facebook) and was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger. 

Instagram was launched in October 2010 and is available on iOS, Android, and Windows devices.

Google Competitors and Alternatives Analysis

Instagram is a photo and video-sharing platform that allows users to share photos and videos easily. Instagram generated $20 billion in ad revenue in 2020, more than YouTube did in the same period.

Instagram controls almost 7 % of the global social media market share, more than YouTube (about 3 % market share). Instagram is going to have 1.16 billion users by 2021.

Facebook’s backing gives Instagram an important competitive advantage over YouTube.

Instagram allows users to upload photos and videos and edit them with filters and tags. You can share videos and photos publicly or with pre-approved users.

Users can browse other users’ content by tags and locations and view trending content. Users can “like” photos and follow others to add their content to a feed.

Amazon Fire TV

Amazon Fire TV’s streaming service is provided by the online retail giant Amazon Inc. Amazon Fire TV streams video content similarly to Google Chromecast and YouTube. There were 40 million Amazon Fire TV subscribers by 2021, surpassing Chromecast’s number.

Roku and Fire TV users can access the service. Roku’s partnership allows Fire TV customers to watch their favorite television shows and movies. 

Roku gives Fire TV customers an advantage over Google Chromecast because it allows them to stream content. 

Fire TV is owned by Amazon and can acquire enough resources to help it take Chromecast’s market share.

Roku

Roku is the leading provider of streaming pay TV content. Roku is a leading provider of pay TV streaming services. 

The company offers TV set-top boxes, smart television operating systems, and multimedia players. 

The creation and operation of Roku employed 253 individuals in 2020, and revenue generated by the company was $1.778 billion.

Roku is the world’s leading streaming platform, competing with Google Chromecast. The Roku service has 51,2 million paid subscribers. 

Roku Channel generated $1.264 billion in ad revenue in 2020. Roku is the best competitor to Chromecast, as it is a direct competitor to that.

Google Competitors in Cloud Services

Google Cloud Platform ranks fourth among cloud computing services, with 5% of the market share.

Amazon Web Services

The leading provider of cloud computing services is Amazon Web Services. Amazon Web Services is a subsidiary of Amazon.com Inc.

Amazon Web Services has more than 175 cloud computing services. The service offered by Amazon Web Services provides cloud computing services for 77 zones in 245 countries. AWS generated $45,37 billion in revenues in the year 2020.

There are over 175 fully featured services offered by Amazon Web Services (AWS), making it the most comprehensive cloud platform on the market.

AWS provides powerful analytics and services for data analysis, cloud computing, databases, and storage services. 

Amazon web services provide cloud computing services such as storage, database, customer service, analytics, etc., to government, people, and organizations. The company offers cloud computing services to businesses, governments, and other organizations. 

AWS is leading the race to become the leader in cloud computing by having a market share of 34% worldwide. The market share of Google Cloud Platform is only 9%.

AWS controls 33.24% of the global cloud market, which is about six times more than GCP’s market share. 

AWS, a subsidiary of Amazon Inc., has enough money to defend itself from cloud platforms like Google Cloud Platform.

Microsoft Azure

After AWS, Microsoft Azure is the second biggest cloud computing platform in the world, with 19% of the market.

Cloud computing is Google’s third major market segment; the company plans to invest more in this area through partnerships.

Microsoft Azure is a platform for deploying cloud computing services. It is part of Microsoft’s global cloud computing ecosystem. 

More than five million organizations and four million developers use Microsoft Azure daily. Azure generates $14.3 billion in revenue each quarter and over $50 million in revenue each year.

Google Competitors and Alternatives Analysis

Microsoft Azure is the second most popular cloud platform. It accounts for 17% of the cloud computing market worldwide. Microsoft Azure generates more revenue than AWS and GCP combined. 

Microsoft Azure has one advantage over other cloud platforms: its ability to integrate with other companies’ ecosystems. 

Microsoft Azure is more likely to be used by customers who use Microsoft cloud computing solutions.

There are a few differences between GCP and Azure from Microsoft regarding cloud computing services. There are many similarities between those two services. 

Google Cloud Platform and Microsoft Azure control the same market share with a minor difference.

Google has always been interested in creating software and online services. It is continuously interested in new technologies and markets. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are predicted to be the next big thing.

Microsoft is interested in cloud computing because it wants to gain from the focused investments that its company makes.

Alibaba Cloud

Alibaba Cloud is a cloud platform operated by Alibaba Group. Alibaba Cloud is the third largest provider worldwide, with a market share of around 7%. 

Alibaba Cloud is one of the largest cloud providers in the world, but there is a small margin between it and Google Cloud Platform. 

The two companies are very close to their competitors. This means that Alibaba Cloud and Google Cloud Platform change positions regularly.

Alibaba Cloud uses a unique technology called Cloud Enterprise Network, or CEN. That allows it to manage its customers’ cloud services across multiple locations. 

Alibaba Cloud allows its customers to control latency and bandwidth when working on complex applications. 

Alibaba Cloud owns a huge market share in Asia, which gives it an advantage over the Google Cloud Platform.

Google Competitors in Personal Computing

There are many business productivity tools offered by Google, including Workspace and consumer products like Gmail and Chrome.

Apple

Apple has the highest value of all technology companies. Apple is valued at over $3 Trillion as of 2022. 

Apple is a leading consumer electronics, software, and online services manufacturer. Apple employed 137,000 people in 2020, and revenues totaled $274 billion.

Apple is a market leader in the global smartphone market, with Apple’s Android having an impressive 84% share. 

Google Competitors and Alternatives Analysis 1

The Apple App Store has an annual income of roughly five million dollars from selling apps, while the Google Play Store generates roughly one million dollars from selling apps. 

Apple’s apps are more expensive than Google’s apps. Safari is a browser that competes with Google Chrome. 

Apple is a formidable competitor to Google. Apple is an incredibly formidable competitor to Google.

Microsoft

Microsoft is a software company that provides computer software, web services, and other consumer electronics. Microsoft is a worthy competitor to Google. 

Microsoft is a prominent tech company that competes with Google in all business segments. 

Microsoft generates $153.3 billion in revenue with over $51 billion in profits. The company employs 163,000 people worldwide.

Microsoft 365 Office is the top competitor for Google Workspace. It offers a lot of features that Workspace does not. 365 Office offers many powerful features, but Google Workspace is cheaper. 

Uline Competitors and Alternatives Analysis

Microsoft 365 costs customers between 5 and 76.5 per month, while Google Workspace costs around 6 to 18 per month. 

Microsoft and Google are also battling for users’ attention in other areas, such as Microsoft’s Cortana and Google Assistant, as well as Bing Maps and Google Maps.

Microsoft Edge has 11.77% of the browser market, while Google Chrome has 59%. The market for internet browsers is dominated by Google Chrome, which dominates 59% of the market. 

Microsoft has an advantage over Google in the consumer electronics market, where Google is dominant.

Microsoft is expected to record an increase of 16% in 2022. Microsoft is valued at $2.7 trillion, making it the second most valuable company in the world. Microsoft is a formidable competitor to Google.

Mozilla

The Mozilla Foundation produces open-source software, such as a browser, bug tracking program, and mobile apps. It employs over 1000 employees and has a $450 million annual turnover. 

Mozilla employs over 1000 people and generates approximately $450 million yearly revenues. 

Google Competitors and Alternatives Analysis

Chrome has a 59% market share in the US, while Mozilla Firefox controls only 6%.

The Firefox browser is the second most popular in Europe, behind the Google Chrome browser. It has a market share of 12 percent. 

Firefox, the browser from Mozilla, is one of the most popular alternatives to Google Chrome.

Yelp

Yelp is a leading platform for consumers to share their honest opinions about local businesses. 

Yelp aggregates consumer reviews of local restaurants, retailers, entertainment, hospitals, and other service providers. 

Yelp employs over 3,900 people and generates $849 million in revenue annually.

Yelp receives 43 million unique visitors every year. Yelp has accumulated more than 206 million local business reviews. 

The Yelp website plans to add several new features to improve consumer reviews’ quality. 

Yelp removed nearly 4,500 fake reviews from its site in 2021. Yelp offers consumers the best way to write reviews about independent businesses compared to Google.

Adobe

Adobe is a leading developer of software that creates digital experiences. It is the next largest competitor in the digital experience market. 

Adobe’s software products compete with Google’s offerings in the digital experience space. Adobe employs 22,316 workers and generates annual revenues of $9,897 billion.

Adobe Analytics is an alternative to Google Analytics. It allows website owners to analyze visitor behavior on their websites. 

Twilio Competitors and Alternatives Analysis

Businesses can utilize Google or Adobe Analytics to analyze the data from their websites and improve user experience. Google Analytics is free, but Adobe Analytics costs around $500/month. 

The Google Cloud Platform and Adobe Marketing Cloud are two of the most important cloud players. Adobe is a major competitor of Google in the digital experience field is Adobe.

Google Competitors in Advertising

Facebook

The Facebook company offers targeted advertisements to businesses, brands, and organizations in addition to its social networking site.

Facebook is the largest social networking and social media site in the world. It has more than 2.2 billion users worldwide. 

The top three countries with the most users are India, the United States, and Indonesia, which boast more than 2.85 billion monthly active users. Facebook’s revenue increased by 21.6%, from $85.4 billion in 2015 to $85.6 billion in 2020.

Facebook and Google are very popular with billions of users worldwide, and they are constantly trying to get more advertisers from all over the world to advertise on their platforms. It’s very difficult for businesses to decide which platform to use for ad campaigns.

Google AdWords is the leading online advertising platform for Google. Users commonly search for keywords with this feature, which helps businesses locate customers. Advertisers use specific keywords to find potential customers.

Facebook’s paid advertising helps brands promote content that their clients publish, to attract the customers they want. Your customers will instantly be drawn to your business and buy your product or service.

Facebook controls around 22.1% of all internet advertising worldwide, while Google controls approximately 37% of all internet ads globally.

Facebook earns its money from digital advertising. Facebook will control 24% of the global digital advertising budget by 2021, behind Google with 29%. 

Facebook offers customers ad recommendations, which are as good as Google’s reviews. Facebook has recently been adopted as its primary review engine for search engine Bing.

Bing recently started using Facebook as its primary customer review source. Facebook also owns leading social media platforms such as Instagram, WhatsApp, Messenger, and Oculus, which makes it an attractive alternative to Google. 

Amazon Inc.

Amazon operates the biggest eCommerce platform in the world as a pioneering technology company.

Amazon is one of four giants the size of the entire planet, along with Google, Apple, and Microsoft. Amazon’s revenues for 2020 are expected to rise by 34% to $380 billion.

Amazon has been expanding its digital advertising business in the United States recently. 

Yelp Competitors & Alternatives Analysis

Amazon currently holds 10.3% of the US market for digital advertising, according to eMarketer. 

Amazon is now third in the US digital ad space behind Google with 28.9% market share and Facebook with 25.2% market share.

Amazon’s US advertising revenues rose 52,55% to $15.73 billion in 2020. Amazon is now a formidable competitor to Google in the US digital advertising space.

Google Competitors in Smartphone Industry

Apple

Apple is a tech company that provides its users with smartphones, operating system software, and other products and services. 

Apple has nearly 22.87% of the global smartphone market, more than any other company.

In the fourth quarter of 2017, Apple held an impressive 13% global smartphone market share. Huawei could achieve this with only 18.6%, with Samsung also leading the way. Additionally, iPhone users can access over two million apps through the iOS App Store.

The company acquired the hardware and software technology needed to manufacture smartphones, which allows it to compete in the smartphone industry. However, the company is way ahead of the competition in the field of smartphones. 

Even though Google is one of the industry’s most important and well-known companies, its market share stands at just 2.28%.

Samsung

Samsung was founded in 1938 and is a South Korean multinational conglomerate. It deals mainly with the insurance, financial services, and textile industries. 

Samsung was founded in 1938, initially in the insurance and textile industries. The company was involved in the construction and shipbuilding industries. 

Samsung began its journey in the 1950s in the insurance and textile industry before moving into the construction and shipbuilding industries. 

Samsung has been focusing on electronic devices ever since the 1990s, such as smartphones. According to Gartner, Samsung was one of the top six globally recognized brands in 2017. 

Samsung is expected to be responsible for 21.8% of the total smartphones and other electronic devices sold by the end of 2019.

It is fun that Google owns the software and hardware that runs on all Samsung devices. 

Google has always been interested in developing software and operating systems for its hardware devices rather than making the hardware itself. 

Smartphones were the first hardware devices that Google manufactured in the 1980s. Google and Samsung have been rivals ever since.

Final Words on Google Competitors and Alternatives

The market capitalization of Google is around $2 trillion, making it the largest privately held company in the world.

Google is involved in many different industries, such as search, technology, media & entertainment, self-driving cars, and other software, such as the Android operating system.

Google is dominant in search in the Internet Age, controlling 90% of online search activity.

Google owns most of the search markets, including organic and paid search, and controls over 92% of them. Google has a strong market share in many important markets but is facing stiff competition in some markets.

The biggest competitor of Google is Facebook as far as advertising goes, followed by Amazon.

Disney Competitors And Alternatives Analysis

Users spend more time searching social networks and online shopping sites to find what they need. In these areas, there is huge potential for advertisers and ad revenue to follow the crowds.

Google’s market share remains far below that of Microsoft and Amazon, despite being the dominant player in the cloud.

The competition for Google’s cloud services includes information technology, database services, consumer electronics, and CRM services.

You May Also Like
Splunk Competitors & Alternatives
Read More

Top Splunk Competitors & Alternatives

Splunk Inc. (Splunk) specializes in creating tools for analyzing and visualizing real-time data, making it a leading provider…
Top Tesla Competitors & Alternatives
Read More

Top Tesla Competitors & Alternatives

Tesla Inc. (TSLA) is an American company that designs, develops, manufactures, and distributes electric vehicles and powertrains.  Elon…
Starbucks Competitors
Read More

Starbucks Competitors & Alternatives

Starbucks opened its first store in Seattle in 1971; it owns 33,669 locations in 83 countries. Starbucks’ revenues…